Truth Code: history
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Πέμπτη, 9 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

Geoglyph photo. Credit: Jenny Watling
Archaeologists have uncovered hundreds of enigmatic structures located in the Amazon, believed to have been built over 2,000 years ago. These mysterious structures have remained concealed for centuries by the Amazon and reveal that the Amazon isn’t as untouched as we believed in the past.

The fascinating ancient structures were most likely built by an unknown civilization.

The traditional idea many historians share is that before the arrival of Spanish and Portuguese in the fifteenth century, and unlike conventional history in the Andes, there weren’t any advanced civilizations in the Amazon region. But, given the fact how deforestation has revealed much of the hidden secrets of the area, scholars are confident that an advanced civilization inhabited the area in the distant past. The numerous aerial and satellite images are revealing, a complex network of structures, roads, and even possibly settlements that until now had remained hidden under the impenetrable layer of the Amazon.

These remarkable earthworks have been uncovered due to rapid deforestation which has allowed experts to uncover over 450 massive geoglyphs in the rainforest.

While their size and complexity has taken archaeologists by surprise, experts are still unsure as to what their exact purpose was, however some authors speculate that the massive enclosures may have been used sporadically as ritual gathering places.

Univeristy of exeter
According to, the structures are unlikely to be villages as archaeologists have recovered very few artifacts during excavations. Furthermore, the layout of the structures suggests they weren’t defensive structures.

The massive structures—eerily similar to Stonehenge— occupy around 13,000 square kilometers in Acre, in the western Brazilian Amazon.

Scientists from the UK and Brazil have said that these structures prove the Amazon isn’t as untouched as we believed in the past.

“The fact that these sites lay hidden for centuries beneath mature rainforest really challenges the idea that Amazonian forests are ‘pristine ecosystems,” said Dr. Jennifer Watling, a post-doctoral researcher at the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, University of Sao Paulo.

“We immediately wanted to know whether the region was already forested when the geoglyphs were built, and to what extent people impacted the landscape to build these earthworks.”

Researchers have managed to ‘look into the past’ by reconstructing 6000 years of vegetation and fire history in the vicinity of two of the archaeological sites using state of the art methods, revealing HEAVY alterations by the ancient culture that inhabited the area.

Scientists say that the ancients modified the bamboo forests for millennia, constructing small temporary clearings in order to erect these mysterious structures.

Experts found that instead of burning large parts of the forest, the ancients were able to transform their environment by concentrating on economically valuable tree species such as palms, creating a kind of ‘prehistoric supermarket’ of useful forest products.

Dr. Watling said: “Despite the huge number and density of geoglyph sites in the region, we can be certain that Acre’s forests were never cleared as extensively, or for as long, as they have been in recent years.

“Our evidence that Amazonian forests have been managed by indigenous peoples long before European Contact should not be cited as justification for the destructive, unsustainable land-use practiced today. It should instead serve to highlight the ingenuity of past subsistence regimes that did not lead to forest degradation and the importance of indigenous knowledge for finding more sustainable land-use alternatives”.

Source: Impact of pre-Columbian “geoglyph” builders on Amazonian forests, PNAS,

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New Age medicine and practices often make reference to the power of crystals. This trend is often treated as a modern day fad, but they actually appear to have a long history dating back to the age of antiquity. 

But what did the ancient people think of crystals, and what use did they put them to? Clues to this question might lie in a haul of crystal weaponry uncovered in an ancient Spanish megalith. 


An excavation of the megalithic tombs of the site at Valencina de la Concepcion in south-western Spain has uncovered a ‘remarkable set’ of crystal weapons. The weapons uncovered are described as exquisitely made and wonderfully well preserved. It is estimated that they date back to the around 3000 BC. It has been noted that the weapons are roughly the same shape as the flint arrowheads that were in common proliferation in the area during this era, but the crystal items would have required a much greater level of skill to construct. 

There are no crystal mines in the nearby proximity which suggests that the creators of these objects must have traveled many hundreds of kilometers to source their material. The scarcity of crystal rock in addition to the enormous amount of craftsman the construction of the artifacts involved suggests that these were elite products. Given that the crystal weapons in a tomb, it suggests that they were used as highly sought after funerary items.  

Twenty-five bodies were discovered in the megalith along with what the archaeologists described as “an extraordinary set of sumptuous grave goods…the most notable of which is an unspecified number of shrouds or clothes made of tens of thousands of perforated beads and decorated with amber beads”. Unusually, however, the crystal weapons were found in a separate chamber, so it is impossible to attribute their ownership to any single person buried in the tomb. 
Historians have speculated that the crystal weapons were collectively owned by all of the bodies that were entombed in the megalith. King Alfonso X the Wise of Castile said that crystals were incredibly power objects which opened up pathways to the spiritual world and protected them from dark, dangerous forces. Therefore, it is possible that the crystal weapons were intended to sanctify the space and ensure that it was safe from potential dark forces.
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Τρίτη, 20 Δεκεμβρίου 2016

An old site in Pakistan’s largest province, full of conquest and historical detail – talks about a discovery of an old amulet that was discovered at the archaeological site of Mehrgrah. This one of a kind discovery reveals many secrets, with its technology of creating different metallic objects being used today, especially by NASA.

According to experts, this wheel-like shaped amulet is one of the first objects ever to be made from a wax casting method that is still being used today.  The not so perfectly round object was discovered by Jean Jarrige, a French archaeologist and one of the few people to have discovered archaeological sites in Pakistan. However, this discovery didn’t make it the papers until recently, when it was further examined, using the latest technology.
Image Source: The Daily Mail – The 6,000-year-old amulet, originally discovered 
in an archaeological site in Mehrgrah, Pakistan, is thought to be the 
earliest example of lost-wax casting – 
a method for making duplicate metal objects.
Using the latest techniques in lighting and photography, scientists observed that the light bounces back from this small 2 centimetre amulet. The findings are consistent with the amulet being made from a single piece and that it consists of no soldering parts – not even the joints in the circle. Furthermore, by observing the light reflecting from the amulet, scientists also discovered that the amulet was made purely from copper that was melted at around a thousand-degree centigrade.

The Technology that NASA still Uses
Image Source: The Daily Mail – The amulet is one of several lost-wax cast 
ornaments discovered during the excavation of the site in Pakistan.
This lost method – that was used by the people of Mehrgrah to mould the metal into a desired shape – was in a way, unique and very simple. According to the experts, they first made a copy of the object with a substance that could melt easily. Then they formed a mould using clay, which was then baked to create a hard template. Once done, the people of Mehrgrah would pour the hot metal into the enclosed baked clay, which would melt the wax and fill the space, resulting in a one-piece metal object – something quite advanced for a 6000-year-old civilisation.

However, this method is still being used today – to make specific metallic objects such as small pieces of space craft, air craft, and even jewellery.
Image Source: Google Image – High spatial dynamics photoluminescence (PL, top) 
and optical microscopy (bottom) images of an area of a portion of one spoke of the 
wheel-shaped amulet. The images reveal microscopic copper oxide bristles 
that hint at how the artefact was made.
According to NASA, the same method was used by them to create special parts of the Messenger space probe – which is not orbiting space. Furthermore, this same method is used by NASA to build customised parts for the International Space Station.

More than Just a Civilisation of Metal Advancements
Image Source: The Daily Mail – The archaeological site at Mehrgrahin Pakistan
where the amulet was found
However, the experts who researched the area of Pakistan where this was discovered, also state that it is one of the first few discoveries to reveal a major advancement in metallurgy, and a simple, yet unique method of wax casting. The experts also concluded that this same method might have been adopted by later civilisations, such as Iraq and its surrounding areas.

According to the experts, Pakistan was not only the place known for metallurgy, but other innovative advancements have also been discovered. Tools and objects for the first dentistry practice were found there, and cotton was weaved for the first time in Mehrgrah.

Scientists discovered that early men used a small hand-held drill to bore teeth more than 5000 years ago, and the experts digging the site in Pakistan found many drilled teeth resting in the graveyard of the archaeological site.
 Image Source: The Daily Mail – The amulet was found at Mehrgrah – an archaeological 
site in Pakistan, located to the west of the Indus River Valley.
The scientists also discovered many cotton threads that were preserved by natural mineralisation created by the environment; also, the people there preserved some of the cotton threats using copper beads, which were further analysed showing that Mehrgrah was also advanced in textile making, something for which Pakistan can be proud of its heritage.

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Σάββατο, 17 Δεκεμβρίου 2016

All shapes and sizes. Didier Descouens, CC BY-SA

PhD candidate on the London NERC DTP, UCL

One of the most weird and wonderful products of evolution is the penis bone, or baculum. The baculum is an extra-skeletal bone, which means it is not attached to the rest of the skeleton but instead floats daintily at the end of the penis. Depending on the animal, bacula range in size from under a millimetre to nearly a metre long, and in shape, varying from needle-like spines to fork like prongs.

The walrus baculum, which could easily be mistaken for a 2ft-long club, is around a sixth of its body length, whereas the diminutive centimetre-long baculum of the ring-tailed lemur is only around a 40th of its body length.

Bacula are found in certain species of mammal, but not all. Most primate males have a baculum, so humans are rather an oddity in that they don’t have one. In a handful of extraordinary circumstances human males have formed bones in the soft tissue at the end of their penises, but this is a rare abnormality, rather than a baculum.

In a new study, published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, my colleague Kit Opie and I examined how the baculum developed in mammals by studying how it is distributed across different species in light of their pattern of descent (known as phylogenetics).

We showed that the baculum first evolved after placental and non-placental mammals split, around 145m years ago, but before the most recent common ancestor of primates and carnivores evolved, around 95m years ago. Our research also shows that the common ancestor of primates and carnivores had a baculum. This means that any species in these groups without a baculum, such as humans, must have lost it over the course of evolution.

So, why on earth would an animal need a bone in their penis in the first place? Scientists have come up with a few theories as to why a baculum might be handy. In certain species, such as cats, a female’s body doesn’t release its eggs until she mates, and some argue that the baculum may help to stimulate females and trigger ovulation. Another, somewhat colourfully named, theory is the vaginal friction hypothesis. This essentially argues that the baculum acts as a shoehorn, enabling a male to overcome any friction and squeeze himself into a female.

Finally, it has been proposed that the baculum helps prolong intromission, otherwise known as vaginal penetration. Far from simply being a nice way to spend an afternoon, prolonging intromission like this is a way for a male to prevent a female from sneaking off and mating with anyone else before his sperm have had a chance to work their magic. This theory brings a whole new meaning to the term “cock-blocking”.

We found that, over the entire course of primate evolution, having a baculum was linked to longer intromission durations (anything over three minutes). On top of this, males of primate species with longer intromission durations tend to have far longer bacula than males of species where intromission is short.

Another interesting discovery was that males of species facing high levels of sexual competition for females have longer bacula than those facing lower levels of sexual competition.

But what about humans? If the penis bone is so important in competing for a mate and prolonging copulation, then why don’t we have one? Well, the short answer to that is that humans don’t quite make it into the “prolonged intromission” category. The average duration from penetration to ejaculation for human males is less than two minutes.

But bonobos only copulate for about 15 seconds at a time and they still have a baculum, even if it is very small (about 8mm). So what makes us different? It’s possible that this comes down to our mating strategies. Human males (generally) have minimal sexual competition as females typically only mate with one male at a time. Perhaps the adoption of this mating pattern, in addition to our short intromission duration, was the last straw for the baculum.

Scientists are only just beginning to piece together the function of this most unusual bone. What seems to be clear is that changes in the primate baculum are driven, at least partly, by a species’ mating strategy. The picture that seems to be emerging is that, under high levels of sexual competition, bigger is better when it comes to the penis bone.

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Κυριακή, 13 Νοεμβρίου 2016

In 1859, the sun blasted Earth with a giant cloud of solar plasma, blowing out telegraph systems around the world and wreaking havoc with electrical pylons. It became known as the Carrington Event. Coronal mass ejections hit our planet about once every 100 years, making us due for another one.

Only this time, it would be catastrophic to our digital world. Resulting electromagnetic surges from a solar storm “could render our electronic devices useless and wipe data stored in memory drives.”

This is one scenario motivating the Memory of Mankind project. Academics, universities, newspapers and libraries are collaborating to preserve the accumulated knowledge of our time onto 8-inch ceramic plates and store them in an Australian salt mine.

“Each of these tablets can hold up to five million characters – about the same as a four-hundred-page book. They are acid- and alkali-resistant and can withstand temperatures of 1300C. A second type of tablet can carry colour pictures and diagrams along with 50,000 characters before being sealed with a transparent glaze.”

The technology draws inspiration from Sumerian clay tablets that lasted 5,000 years in the Iraqi desert, which proved invaluable to our understanding of that ancient civilization. Memory of Mankind intends for their “ceramic microfilm” to last millennia or even through an Ice Age, allowing future peoples to study our time.

“We are trying to create something that will not only be a collection of information for a distant future, but it will also be a gift for our grandchildren,” said Martin Kunze, developer of the project. “Memory of Mankind can serve as a backup of knowledge in case of an event like war, a pandemic or a meteorite that throws us back centuries within two or three generations. A society can lose skills and knowledge very quickly – in the 6th Century, Europe largely lost the ability to read and write within three generations.”

Nuclear holocaust, malicious hackers, careless government officials or simply losing the ability to read our digital records are among the scenarios that could render entire sections of humanity unknown to history. So much of our knowledge record is only in digital format now – including scientific papers and video footage – as well as records of personal stories and life events.

“In some distant future after our own civilisation has vanished, they could prove invaluable to any who find them. They could help resurrect forgotten knowledge for cultures less advanced than our own, or provide a wealth of historical information for more advanced civilisations to ensure our own achievements, and our mistakes, can be learned from.”

It could even be other forms of intelligent life form that benefit from the treasure trove of knowledge. But how will the ceramic plates, buried under a mountain, be found and translated?

Everyone taking part in the project is being given a small engraved token with a map of the location, which they can bury at strategic locations or pass down to the next generation. The team has also been creating their own Rosetta Stone, with names and meanings attached to images.

A conference of scientists, historians, archaeologists, linguists and philosophers is taking place this month to create a blueprint for should be included in this repository of knowledge.

In addition to the world’s most significant books, revolutionary scientific papers, and images of precious objects from museums, stories and objects from everyday life will be captured onto the ceramic disks. They will also warn future civilization about nuclear waste dumps.

To immortalize the importance of true freedom fighters exposing the corruption of government, “a plate detailing the story of Edward Snowden and his leak of classified material from the US National Security Agency.”

If the Memory of Mankind project seems rather uninspiring now, imagine how archaeologists felt when they discovered those ancient Sumerian tablets. What would our understanding of human history be without them?

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Πέμπτη, 10 Νοεμβρίου 2016

Mysterious artifacts are uncovered every year, which fascinates the archeology community and enthusiasts. But what's the chance of finding a strange and mysterious artifact in an antique shop? 

Some time ago, a skull with carvings of of several deities and symbols was found by chance on an antique shop in Vienna, Austria. The skull is carved with excellent detail and many experts and researchers have been analyzing it for a long time never hearding of a skull such as this one. Nobody couldn't crack the meaning behind this skull. 

The closest information we could get about this mysterious skull, was from a Tibetan Khenpo , or a monk professor, who said that skulls with engravings such as this one is usually an amulet against curses or used to guide the soul of the dead back in the right path. But even he admited that information regarding such practices or artifacts is very limited, and that this skull is one of the most mysterious kind. 

Watch the following video to know more! 

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Δευτέρα, 7 Νοεμβρίου 2016


Advanced ancient civilizations are a big topic of interest among researchers, historians, archaeologists, and scientists. Every single year we are gifted with a mysterious find that has us questioning the origins of the human race and imagining the cultures which roamed the earth before us. We have found much evidence to suggest that there may have been civilizations in existence before us which were intellectually, and even technologically superior. That being said, this theory is still thought to be quite fantastical; despite all of the evidence which has been brought to light in recent years to support this notion, it is still largely ignored by the mainstream. If you are interested in looking at some of this evidence, a great place to start is with author Graham Hancock, in his book titled The Magicians of The Gods.


If you start talking about the lost, ancient city of Atlantis, most people will probably think that you’re living in ‘la la’ land. Many people are unaware that this city has been seriously studied for hundreds of years. For example, we can see that it was a subject of significant importance for researchers at the Smithsonian Institution, as emphasized by their Annual Report of the Board of Regents of The Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30th, 1915.

In the report, author M. Pierre Termeir, a member of the Academy of Sciences and Director of Service of the Geologic Chart of France, gives a lecture regarding the Atlantean civilization.  He makes a compelling case for further study of this lost city:

After a long period of disdainful indifference, observe how in the last few years science is returning to the study of Atlantis. How many naturalists, geologists, zoologists, or botanists are asking one another today whether Plato has not transmitted to us, with slight amplification, a page from the actual history of mankind. No affirmation is yet permissible; but it seems more and more evident that a vast region, continental  or made up of great islands, has collapsed west of the Pillars of Hercules, otherwise called the Straight of Gibraltar, and that its collapse occurred in the not far distant past. In any event, the question of Atlantis is placed anew before men of science; and since I do not believe that it can ever be solved without the aid of oceanography, I have thought it natural to discuss it here, in this temple of maritime science, and to call to such a problem, long scorned but now being revived, the attention of oceanographers, as well as the attention of those who, though immersed in the tumult of cities, lend an ear to the distant murmur of the sea.

You can read this full report here, starting on page 219.

In his lecture, M. Termeir goes on to present zoologic, geographic, and geologic data to support the existence of the lost Atlantean civilization.Not only that, archaeological discoveries on the ocean floor have also raised some questions…

Plato’s Description of Atlantis

Plato, the ancient Greek philosopher, provides a description of Atlantis in his dialogue Critias, which was never completed. The following is a summary of his depiction, these are a few of many points I am taking from Manly P. Halls, The Secret Teachings of All Ages

  • Atlantis was inhabited by ‘earth-born’ and ‘primitive’ human beings. One of them was wooed by the god Poseidon, who interbred with the human beings, and they eventually bore five children. This interbreeding between gods and humans is a common theme in many historical texts found throughout the world.
  • The land was divided into concentric zones of land and water. Two zones of land and three zones of water surrounded the central island, which had warm springs of water and cold springs of water.
  • Atlantis became an established country, with a wise government and an industry that sprung them to advanced technological heights — beyond even what we have reached today.
  • Atlantis had limitless resources, wild animals, and precious metals, and was heavily populated.
  • Atlantis was full of large and beautiful palaces, temples, docks, and a network of various bridges and canals that united different sections of the kingdom.
  • White, black and red stones were used in the construction of public buildings. “They circumscribed each of the land zones with a wall, the outer wall being covered with brass, the middle with tin, and the inner, which encompassed the citadel, with orichalch. The citadel, on the central island, contained the palaces, temples, and other public buildings. In its center, surrounded by a wall of gold, was a sanctuary dedicated to Cleito and Poseidon.” (source)
  • Atlantis had a number of gardens, full of hot and cold springs. There were countless temples, public baths, and exercise facilities for both man and animal.
  • “The part of Atlantis facing the sea was described as lofty and precipitous, but about the central city was a plain sheltered by mountains renowned for their size, number, and beauty. The plain yielded two crops each year, in the winter being watered by rains and in the summer by immense irrigation canals, which were also used for transportation. The plain was divided into sections and in time of war each section supplied its quota of fighting men and chariots.” (source)
  • Atlantis was massive, ruled by multiple kings who all had control over their land. Their relationships with the other kings were governed by an original code of ethics that was engraved by the first ten kings. “The chief laws of the Atlantean kings were that they should not take up arms against each other and that they should come to the assistance of any of their number who was attacked.” (source)

The Downfall of Atlantis

These are the essential points Plato makes about Atlantis. He described it as a great and powerful empire, almost magical, and said that this was the same empire which attacked the Hellenic states. He attributes the power and glory they tasted after this venture to their eventual demise, writing that the love for these ego-driven desires that soon developed among Atlantean kings “lured” them from “the pathway of wisdom and virtue.” 

“Filled with false ambition, the rulers of Atlantis determined to conquer the gods into his holy habitation and addressed them. Here Plato’s narrative comes to an abrupt end, for the Critias was never finished.” (source)

Plato also tackles the subject of Atlantis in his Timaeus, writing of a story told by Solon — who himself is said to have heard the story in Egypt, passed on to him by a priest via hieroglyphic inscriptions in a temple in Sais — in which a violent cataclysm sank the continent. Thus, the  Island of Atlantis completely disappeared. (source)

“A technologically sophisticated but morally bankrupt evil empire – Atlantis – attempts world domination by force. The only thing standing it its way is a relatively small group of spiritually pure, morally principled and incorruptible people – the ancient Athenians. Overcoming overwhelming odds . . . the Athenians are able to defeat their far more powerful adversary simply through the force of their spirit. Sound familiar? Plato’s Atlantean dialogues are essentially an ancient greek version of ‘Star Wars.’ ” – Ken Feder, professor of archaeology, taken from his book “Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology.”

The Egyptian connection is also interesting to bring up here because Crantor, another ancient Greek philosopher, asserted that the Egyptian priests declared the story of Atlantis to be written upon pillars which were still preserved circa 300 B.C.

Manly P. Hall has noted that, before this cataclysm, a portion of the population left and did not succumb to the egoistic tendencies which apparently led to the downfall of Atlantis. Was the philosophic, religious, and scientific knowledge of Atlantis passed on? There are many similarities between the reported teachings of Atlantis and those of other cultures, such as the Mayas of Central America.

According to Manly P. Hall, from the Atlanteans, “the world received not only the heritage of arts and crafts, philosophies, and sciences, ethics and religions, but also the heritage of hate, strife, and perversion. The Atlanteans instigated the first war; and it has been said that all subsequent wars were fought in a fruitless effort to justify the first one and right the wrong which it caused.” (source)

Before Atlantis sank, its spiritually illuminated Initiates, who realized that their land was doomed because it had departed from the Path of Light, withdrew from the ill fated continent. Carrying with them the sacred and secret doctrine, these Atlanteans established themselves in Egypt, where they became its first divine rulers. Nearly all the great cosmologic myths forming the foundation of the various sacred books of the world are based upon the Atlantean Mystery Rituals.” (source)

One of the most interesting parts of this story, to me, is the fact that this place is often remembered as a place of glory, light, and abundance, which it was. But they were not immune to the dangers of avarice, either, as H.P. Blavatsky makes clear: “Under the evil insinuations of their demon, Thevatat, the Atlantis race became a nation of wicked magicians. In consequence of this, war was declared, the story of which would be too long to narrate; its substance may be found in the disfigured allegories of the race of Cain, the giants, and that of Noah and his righteous family. The conflict came to an end by the submersion of the Atlantis, which finds its imitation in the stories of the Babylonian and Mosaic flood.” (source)

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Παρασκευή, 21 Οκτωβρίου 2016

An expeditionary team from the Russian Arctic National Park has just found a secret Nazi base named  ‘Schatzgraber’ or ‘Treasure Hunter’ in the Arctic. The team found more than 500 objects of historical value in the ruins of what was once a Nazi base, said to have been built to search the arctic for ancient artifacts. The secret base is believed to have been one of the many sites built by the Nazi’s in their quest for supremacy.

More specifically, the finding was made last August —as local media reveals—in Alexandra, an island located more than 1,000 kilometers from the North Pole.

While people were cautious when the discovery was made a couple of months ago due to the lack of images and conclusive evidence, the news has gone viral as the team has posted a video where we can see a number of artifacts and the base completely in ruins.

Te mysterious base, named  ‘Schatzgraber’ or ‘Treasure Hunter’ was erected in 1942 – just one year after the Third Reich invaded Russia.

Experts believe that the ‘Schatzgraber’ base may have been part of a much larger mission that was put in place when the Nazi’s searched for ancient artifacts.

So far, experts have recovered around 500 objects from the site. The ruins of the base, petrol canisters, and even paper documents are among the items recovered by Russian researchers. The objects are in a relatively good condition, preserved by the intense cold.

It is believed that in 1944, Treasure Hunter personnel were evacuated after an illness broke out after consuming contaminated polar bear meat.

Six years after, in 1950, the secret base was dismantled.

However, one of the most mysterious details surrounding the secret Nazi base is why the Nazi’s decided to call a ‘weather station’ ‘Treasure Hunter.’

Were they looking for actual treasures? If so, why the Arctic? What were the Nazi’s expecting to find in such an inhospitable area?

Many people believe that the Nazi’s had several bases not only in the Arctic but in Antarctica as well.

It is well known that during the Second World War, the Nazi’s carried out a number of strange experiments with alleged technologies unknown to the rest of the world in their attempt to rule the world.

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Σάββατο, 6 Αυγούστου 2016

Establishment political corruption and election rigging have become so commonplace, the stunning collusion and fraud perpetrated by the Democratic National Committee this year — revealed in several document leaks — seemed virtually inconsequential to vast swaths of the voting public.

To some, however, the coordinated plot to install Hillary Clinton as the Democratic nominee constituted an unforgivable breach of faith, if not outright criminality — particularly since none of those involved will be held accountable. Despite this outrage, a parallel feeling of helplessness also settled in — after all, the disillusioned lamented, what could really be done to thwart such a blatant power-grab?

To those who believe such malfeasance is beyond resolve, perhaps a revisit to the Battle of Athens on its 70th anniversary will offer some perspective.

In 1946, war-weary GIs began to return from World War II battlefronts in Europe and Japan, ready to resume life in their sleepy Tennessee town. What they found, instead, infuriated them to the core. A power-hungry Democrat and his associates had since usurped local government and law enforcement, and had imposed a maniacal chokehold on the McMinn County town through extortive fines, excess laws, and arrests of anyone who opposed them.

While the soldiers were away fighting power-hungry foreign enemies in 1936, Paul Cantrell, a Democrat from a wealthy and prominent family, used that influence to win the position of sheriff. Though many Athens citizens strongly suspected Cantrell hadn’t been elected through entirely legal means, there appeared to be no way to challenge the results.

As the years passed, Cantrell and his deputies took full advantage of Tennessee law which gave the unscrupulous men a fee for each person arrested, jailed, and released. According to some accounts, the lawmen even pulled over buses that happened to pass through town, summarily arrested everyone on board for drunkenness — whether or not they actually were — in order to profit handily from their misfortune. But such arrests and fines required paperwork — which meant traceable money — and to some degree hindered the men’s ability to rake in cash.

“It was less troublesome to collect kickbacks for allowing roadhouses to operate openly,” American Heritage explained. “Cooperative owners would point out influential patrons. They were not bothered, but the rest were subject to shakedowns. Prostitution, liquor, and gambling grew so prevalent that it became common knowledge in Tennessee that Athens was ‘wide open.’”

Because Cantrell and his cronies faced only limited opposition, they thwarted subsequent elections by transporting ballot boxes from every precinct to the McMinn County Jail to be counted behind closed doors. Neutral elections observers became the ‘enemy’ and were frequently forcefully ejected from polling sites, if not arrested.

With nearly 10 percent of the town’s population fighting overseas, the beleaguered citizens didn’t feel there was much they could do to fight the nefarious political machine.

Cantrell eventually moved on to become a state senator, leaving Pat Mansfield to become his successor as sheriff — exactly as they had planned — but by the time soldiers were arriving home, Cantrell intended to resume his position as McMinn County Sheriff.

By 1946, most GIs had returned home to find the liberties and freedoms they assumed they’d fought for quashed by the succession of zealous sheriffs and their deputies, who made a racket of roughing up and arresting the former soldiers. But their profiteering scheme wasn’t exactly well-received.

Rather than accepting this iniquity, the GIs decided to remove the despised kleptocrats from power by running for office on a non-partisan platform. In response, Cantrell publicly accused the former soldiers of plotting to stuff ballot boxes in their favor — to which the GIs offered a $1,000 reward for verifiable proof that no one ever collected. Fully aware of their opponent’s own ballot-stuffing, the military men employed car-mounted loudspeakers to roll through Athens repeating one of their popular campaign slogans: YOUR VOTE WILL BE COUNTED AS CAST.

On election day August 1, 1946, voters thronged to the polls in record numbers. Mansfield had bolstered his staff of deputies by hiring law enforcement from other cities and even other states. Now some 300 strong, the lawmen hawkishly guarded voting precincts — but rather than looking out for fraud, the men roughed up veterans serving as poll watchers and anyone else they considered troublemakers.

Legally-appointed GI representative, Walter Ellis, became the first person arrested by Mansfield’s goons, after he protested ‘irregularities’ observed in the courthouse precinct. Several others soon followed — all arrested without just cause.

But one of the worst incidents occurred when an elderly black farmer, Tom Gillespie, attempted to cast his vote. One of Cantrell’s badged thugs sneered at the old man, “Nigger, you can’t vote here,” and proceeded to punch him with brass knuckles. When Gillespie dropped his ballot and moved for the door, the goon shot him in the back.

Hearing the gunshot, crowds swarmed into the streets, and Mansfield responded by shutting down the precinct and positioning armed guards to prevent access.

Gillespie’s shooting and the sheriff’s actions enraged the veterans, and one of them shouted, “Let’s go get our guns!”

After the former soldiers retrieved pistols, shotguns, and various other weapons, throngs of citizens joined them in surrounding the county jail where at least 25 deputies had run for cover. The GIs began firing in an attempt to draw the errant lawmen out — but it wasn’t until around 4 a.m. that they finally surrendered.

Many called for the corrupt to be hanged, but ultimately they “were taken to the edge of town, tied to trees, stripped naked and told not to come back.”

They eagerly complied.

But even this showdown hadn’t stopped Cantrell — as he retained control of the precincts and had pulled ahead in the election — and thus ordered polling sites to close early.

One fed up veteran, Bill White, who had fought in the Pacific theater, grew more irate as the day wore on and decided to rally his compatriots to action.

“You call yourselves GIs,” he bellowed, “you go over there and fight for three of four years — you come back and you let a bunch of draft dodgers who stayed here where it was safe, and you were making it safe for them, push you around … If you people don’t stop this, and now is the time and place, you people wouldn’t make a pimple on a fighting GI’s ass. Get guns …”

White and several others proceeded to raid the National and State Guard armories and returned, heavily armed, to the jail where Cantrell and the few cronies he had left, remained barricaded inside. They demanded Cantrell exit with the ballot boxes, but were met by silence.

After unleashing an — ultimately ineffective — “barrage of gunfire” on the jail, the men procured “a healthy supply of dynamite,” which worked like a charm: Cantrell and his men promptly surrendered.

Astonishingly, despite all the gunfire, explosives, and brutal force, there were no casualties in the Battle of Athens — even Gillespie survived the gunshot to his back.
Cantrell unsurprisingly lost by a landslide, and the victorious GIs immediately began returning the ex-sheriff’s extorted fees to the grateful citizens — eventually returning order to the long-suffering town.

These events were extreme, and though this momentous victory of citizens over corrupt crony politicians proved something can, indeed, be done to fight establishment malfeasance, armed revolt certainly isn’t a realistic or justifiable option now. But other options, particularly when instituted on a large scale, could prove just as fruitful.

One of the most effective ways to vote doesn’t involve elections or polls at all — withdrawing your money from the corporatist system which funds and backs corrupt politicians can be a decisive method to show your intolerance of their policies. Hit politicians where it hurts them most — their wallets — by growing your own organic food, participating in barter and trade, or by either refusing to vote in national elections or opting instead for a third party candidate.

Be creative in refusing to validate the system that directly permits such corruption — and worse — to continue.

When the law becomes so twisted it allows criminals to operate with impunity, that law is little more than hollow ordinance. If working within the system to change it from the inside isn’t fruitful — think Bernie Sanders — perhaps it’s time to work outside it.

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