Truth Code: nature
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Εμφάνιση αναρτήσεων με ετικέτα nature. Εμφάνιση όλων των αναρτήσεων

Πέμπτη, 2 Μαρτίου 2017


The Siberian permafrost has been a massive freezer for everything buried within it for hundreds of thousands of years. But climate change has provoked an alarming defrost of the tundra.


“Permafrost is a silent ticking time bomb,” explains Robert Spencer, an environmental scientist at Florida State University, because as it thaws, the dirt can release bacteria, carbon, methane, viruses, and more.

Huge holes have even begun appearing seemingly out of the blue, and in other places, the tundra is bubbling beneath people’s feet.

Now, new research has revealed that one of the permafrost’s biggest craters in the region, which is referred to by the local Yakutian people as the “doorway to the underworld”, is growing so quickly that it’s exposing forests, carcasses, and up to 200,000 years of historical climate records. It’s called the Batagaika crater, which is a “megaslump” or “thermokarst.”

The largest of its kind, coming in at almost 0.6 miles long and 282 feet deep, it seems the crater is expanding each day. The team even suggests that the side wall of the crater will reach a neighbouring valley in just a few months due to temperatures heating up in the Northern Hemisphere, which could result in additional land collapse.

“On average over many years, we have seen that there’s not so much acceleration or deceleration of these rates, it’s continuously growing,” explains Frank Günther from the Alfred Wegener Institute in Germany. “And continuous growth means that the crater gets deeper and deeper every year.”

The hole will only get deeper and larger, which will bring to the surface carbon stores that have been trapped for thousands of years.

“Global estimations of carbon stored in permafrost is [the] same amount as what’s in the atmosphere,” Günther said.

At the very least, however, the crater could reveal a slew of important climate data, which, according to lead researcher Julian Murton from the University of Sussex, could help us to understand how the climate of Siberia changed in the past, and how it will shift over the coming years. Such insight may help us to better prepare for when the permafrost melts again, which last occurred around 10,000 years ago, when the Earth transitioned out of its last Ice Age.

“The Batagaika site contains a remarkably thick sequence of permafrost deposits, which include two wood-rich layers interpreted as forest beds that indicate past climates about as warm or warmer than today’s climate,” Murton explains.

“The upper forest bed overlies an old land surface that was eroded, probably when permafrost thawed in a past episode of climate warming.”

But there’s more research that needs to be done, Murton says, as the exact dates of the sediment that have been exposed in the crater still aren’t known.

Murton is devising a plan at the moment to drill bore holes in the region in order to examine additional sediment in hopes of getting a better understanding of what happened in the past.

“Ultimately, we’re trying to see if climate change during the last Ice Age [in Siberia] was characterised by a lot of variability: warming and cooling, warming and cooling as occurred in the North Atlantic region,” he explains.

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Σάββατο, 25 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

Credit: Thula Thula Rhino Orphanage

The two white rhinos were only 18 months old and due to return to the wild next week.

Poachers stormed into a rhino orphanage in South Africa earlier this week and killed two young rhinos, as well as brutally attacking staff and sexually assaulting one woman. A gang of poachers took staff hostage at the Fundimvelo Thula Thula Rhino Orphanage in KwaZulu-Natal on Monday night, and hacked off the horns of two 18 month old white rhinos named Impi and Gugu. Gugu was killed instantly during the attack, but Impi survived the brutality. However, his injuries were so bad that he had to be put down the next morning. According to local media, the rhinos were due to have their horns safely removed next week in an attempt to protect them from poachers before they were released back into the wild, but evidently this came too late.


Thula Thula’s Karen Trendler told journalist Bonné de Bod in a Facebook Live video, “Is this another stage? That’s what we’ve been asking. There has been an increasing desensitisation, there has been an escalation in the violence in the poaching and the mutilation.” The rhinos at this orphanage had been taken there after their mothers were killed by poachers. In the wild, a rhino calf will often stand by its mother for days after poachers have killed her, with no food or water, until the calf is rescued by conservationists like those at Thula Thula.

Trendler described in an interview, “Impy survived a particularly brutal poaching. He stayed at his mother’s carcass for six days, moving away just a short distance to eat … because he was obviously very hungry and very thirsty. And when he came in, I still remember so clearly, sitting with this tiny little rhino who was covered in blood splatter from where they shot the mom, and he smelled terribly of carcass fluids, and … that reality hitting me — this is what rhino poaching is about, this is what these little guys go through.”
Credit: Thula Thula Rhino Orphanage
Yvette Taylor, a manager at Thula Thula and executive director of Lawrence Anthony Earth Organization told The Dodo, “The remainder of the rhino as well as Charlie our hippo orphan are doing well. They were initially very scared but have now settled back into a routine. The staff and volunteers have been absolutely amazing in keeping their focus on the care of the animals despite the trauma they have endured themselves. We have also had a vet onsite for the last 48 hours in case we need specialist care for any reason.”
Credit: Thula Thula Rhino Orphanage
Since the horrific attack, Thula Thula has received huge amounts of worldwide support, both through social media and those directly involved with conservation. This includes donations of over R400,000 ($31,242) to help them rebuild everything that the poachers destroyed, which includes all of the orphanage’s security cameras, as well as the care needed to keep all of the animals at the orphanage safe. Local reports claim that two suspects were arrested who are well known poachers from a notorious gang in the area, and were also found with a heavy-calibre hunting rifle and several rounds of ammunition. Support continues at Thula Thula as all staff members try to recover and rebuild after the attack whilst making plans for heightened security measures in the future.

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Τρίτη, 14 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

By Jessica Murray

The ocean bombing will affect the behavioral and breeding habitats of a range of marine life.

US Air Force bomb testing will disrupt the lives of hundreds of marine animals if the practice goes ahead. The testing of bombs around the waters just off the coast of Kauai, in Hawaii, could seriously affect the health of a number of different marine species that live in the area. If the tests are approved, they would begin in September 2017 and continue all the way through until August 2022. Michael Jasny, a leading expert in the law and policy of ocean noise pollution and director of the Marine Mammal Protection Project for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), told The Dodo, “The Air Force has proposed dropping about 100 bombs per year, some as large as 300 pounds, on waters north of Kauai. It says it will keep whales and dolphins out of harm’s way by looking for them on the surface, but that’s no easy task in the heavy waters around the islands.”



Recent reports from The Dodo have claimed that the Long Range Strike Weapons Systems Evaluation Program would explode bombs and missiles that are being tested for military use above or just below the surface of the water. If this takes place, it could permanently deafen an estimated 36 animals, according to data on the population density of the area issued by the Air Force. Along with these statistics, a further 382 animals could also sustain temporary hearing loss due to the bomb explosions. The threat of hearing hindering is of particular concern for whales and dolphins as they navigate and communicate by sound, using their sense of hearing. Therefore the explosions could severely impact their behavioural patterns, meaning that the way that the animals breed, migrate, eat and nurse their young could all be disrupted.
An array of wildlife organisations including the NRDC, the Animal Welfare Institute, the Center for Biological Diversity, the Conservation Council for Hawaii, Earthjustice and the Ocean Mammal Institute sent a joint letter to the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), which is the agency that is in charge of approving the explosion testing proposal. The letter urges the government to consider the huge impact that the bombing could have on the marine animals that live in the area, taking the animal’s safety into account. Jasny continued by commenting on alternatives that the Air Force should consider if the bombing tests cannot be entirely shut down. He said,

“At the very least, the Air Force should use the Navy’s network of hydrophones (or underwater microphones) to help detect these vulnerable species around its bomb site. And it should keep to the northern end of the training area, where the islands’ resident whales and dolphins are less likely to go. Otherwise, the Air Force would be taking unnecessary risks in one of the most remarkable spots for marine mammals on the planet.”

Although the public comment period on this proposal has now finished, the NMFS can still be contacted on the matter through this address ITP.McCue@noaa.gov. In addition to this, you can add your name here to speak up for the animals that cannot defend themselves and risk being seriously implicated by the acts of the US Air Force.

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Τετάρτη, 8 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

It’s often argued that everything our ancestors did and said gets stored into our brains. Their experience and knowledge gets passed down from generation to generation. This may explain why we know or react to certain things without having any prior knowledge.

Kulning is an ancient herding call used in the Scandinavian region. The call is a high pitch tone that can reach long distances. The herding call sounds more like a haunting and sad melody meant to echo through mountains and alleys.

It was getting late and foggy on a magical night when Swedish artist Jonna Jinton wanted to try kulning. She wanted to find out if the animals would answer to the call their own ancestors heard when the women called them. Kulning might just be one of the most beautiful and enchanting sounds ever made.



Source: lifebuzz.com
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Δευτέρα, 6 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

Credit: Bored Panda
The Ayam Cemani is one of the most exotic and mysterious breeds of chickens in the world.

Now and again, mesmerizing and rare species of the animal kingdom present themselves. And, we’ll bet this is the first time you’ve ever beheld a completely black chicken. The unique bird, known as the Ayam Cemani, is one of the most exotic and mysterious breeds in the world, reports CemaniFarms. From the chicken’s silky feathers to her internal organs, she is completely black.

Reportedly, the effect is caused by a condition called fibromelanosis, which is a harmless genetic mutation. When the bird is in embryo, extra melanin seeps into the creature’s tissues, resulting in incredibly rare Cemani chicks.

The Cemani is from Indonesia and has inspired Javanese folklore since the 12th century. Some believe the bird’s blood is a delicacy of spirits that bring power and wealth, and even serves as a good luck charm.

One thing’s for sure, the rare chicken is a creature to marvel at!
Credit: Bored Panda

Credit: Bored Panda

Credit: Bored Panda

Credit: Bored Panda

Credit: Bored Panda

Credit: Bored Panda
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Σάββατο, 4 Φεβρουαρίου 2017

Humanity has only just begun to tap the surface about the mysteries held by the vast oceans which cover so much of this Earth. Scientists are regularly discovering new species of animals in the deep sea and experts are even uncovering the early stages of proof for lost continents and perhaps even lost civilisations. One such newly discovered continent has recently been located at the bottom of the Indian Ocean, between India and the island nation of Madagascar. It is believed that the continent once covered the ocean up to the point of the East African island of Mauritius. 

ANCIENT CONTINENT DISCOVERED UNDERNEATH THE INDIAN OCEAN 

Geologists have long been fascinated with the rocks on the island of Mauritius as some of the mineral fragments uncovered there are around 3 billion years old. This is significantly older than the relatively young island which was created approximately ten million years ago as the result of extreme volcanic activity. It was speculated that these highly ancient fragments had originated in a lost continent located deep beneath the island nation. Now, these suspicions have been confirmed. 

Researchers working at the University Witwatersrand in South Africa have been using a novel imagining technique known as mass spectrometry to investigate these suspicious. They discovered that the mineral fragments had been transported to the island by travelling lava emanating from underneath the sea. This indicates that there is a continental crush beneath Mauritius. According to Professor Ashwal, the lead author on the team’s report, this continent would have once “formed part of the ancient nucleus of Madagascar and India.” 

Experts have suggested that this lost continent, which they have dubbed Mauritia, would have been an incredibly dangerous place in the past. The region would have been covered with volcanoes and would have experienced both earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a fairly regular basis. According to the researchers, it is likely that the continent was fragmented by this intense seismic activity which would have occurred in the region from the early Cretaceous period onwards.



According to Alan Collins of the University of Adelaide, more and more lost continents have been discovered in recent years, including underneath his homeland of Western Australia. “It’s only now as we explore more of the deep oceans that we’re finding all these bits of ancient continents around the place, ” he said. 

Sources: history.comdisclose.tv
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